|Text: Field Trip||Images: On-Site||Images: Ammonoids||Links: My Web Pages|
Numerous 248 million year-old ammonoids can be found in the shadows of Mount Whitney--at 14,505 feet the highest point in the contiguous United States--near Lone Pine, California. The extinct cephalopods occur at Union Wash along the western flanks of the Inyo Mountains, directly east of the mighty Sierra Nevada, whose impressive ice-sculpted peaks dominate the western skyline. At Union Wash, which happens to be one of the major drainage courses for the western slopes of the Inyos, geologists have identified more than 2,300 feet of Early Triassic strata belonging to the appropriately named Union Wash Formation. Within this thick and relatively undeformed sequence of marine-originated siltstones, mudstones, shales and limestones, ammonoids are common to locally abundant at three separate horizons--cephalopods that in the context of geologic time chronology lived "only" three to four million years after the most devastating extinction event Earth has ever survived: The traumatic Permian end times of some 252 million years ago when fully 81 percent of all marine life and 70 percent of terrestrial vertebrates died out.
Today, while each fossil-bearing layer is currently accessible to interested amateur collectors, the most famous and prolific ammonoid-rich area does happen to lie within the designated Southern Inyo Wilderness, established in December 1978.
But that is of course no serious impediment to interested individuals wishing to experience an opportunity to explore a world-class fossil region that contains the remains of marine life that helped re-colonize a world devastated by the Permian end time extinction event. Which is to say that visitors to the Southern Inyo Wilderness territory at Union Wash may of course continue to explore that most prolific celebrated cephalopod horizon--called by ammonoid enthusiasts worldwide the Meekoceras beds (named for the most characteristic species present)--but those who choose to investigate the extensive fossil deposit (hiking is required to reach it, since motor vehicles are not allowed to enter a designated, federal wilderness area) must not remove specimens from the bedrock deposits; only freely weathered ammonoids and chunks of fossiliferous rock already eroded off the exposed strata may be collected by unauthorized visitors.
Always check with the local rangers, though, before collecting even surface paleontological specimens within a formally established Wilderness region: most places that have been placed into that kind of federal protection program are completely off-limits to any manner of fossil gathering. In order to conduct a formal paleontological dig at Union Wash--removing ammonoid-bearing material from the bedrock for scientific study--one must secure a special-use permit issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) or US Forest Service, depending on which agency administers the geography under study. Without exception, the permit is granted solely to individuals with a minimum B.S. degree from an accredited university, or a formally recognized museum that is registered to curate fossil specimens, whose research projects can be fully verified as authentic by the petitioned authorities.
Even though it is not as widely exposed, or nearly as fossiliferous as the justifiably famous Meekoceras ammonoid beds, a second major ammonoid horizon at Union Wash also continues to provide amateur cephalopod seekers and professional invertebrate paleontologists with loads of identifiable fossil specimens--the so-called Neopopanoceras zone (originally called the Parapopanoceras zone), which at last field check occurs outside the Southern Inyo Wilderness boundaries in the upper member of the Lower Triassic Union Wash Formation (youngest periods of deposition), a dominantly calcium carbonate interval probably precipitated in relatively shallow waters. A third cephalopod-yielding layer, situated stratigraphically between the older Meekoceras beds and the younger Neopopanoceras zone, yields rather common ammonoids preserved primarily as poorly preserved flattened impressions along the bedding planes of fine-grained shales that currently outcrop within the Southern Inyo Wilderness area.
The most abundant ammonoid encountered in the Neopopanoceras zone is the species for which the layer was named, Neopopanoceras haugi (formerly called Parapopanoceras haugi). Closely resembling a diminutive gastropod, Neopopanoceras ammonoids typically measure only a few millimeters in diameter and are most efficiently examined under powers of 10X or greater magnification. Additional readily identifiable ammonoids described from the interval include Keyserlingites pacificus, Goricanites noblei, Pseudacrochordiceras inyoense, Eodanubites (Dumitricaceras) judae, Courtilloticeras stevensi, Inyoceras bittneri, Courtilloticeras stevensi, Hungarites vatesi, Paranannites oviformis, Trilolites pacifica, Keyserlingites (sp.), Acrochorduceras inyoense, Xenodiscus bittneri and Xenodiscus multicamaratus. In addition to the ammonoids, a few other fossil varieties have also been described from the Neopopanoceras horizon. These include an orthocone nautiloid cephalopod related to Orthoceras sp., pelecypods, and several species of conodonts--minute tooth-like structures, unrelated to modern jaws, that served as a feeding apparatus in an extinct lamprey eel-like organim (seen only in the insoluble residues of Union Wash limestones treated with dilute acetic acid).
The first paleontologist to study the Neopopanoceras zone at Union Wash was Triassic ammonoid specialist James Perrin Smith, who published his findings in 1914 in the classic monograph Middle Triassic Marine Invertebrate Faunas Of North America, United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 83; in a preliminary statigraphic overview of Triassic ammonoids from the western United States, originally issued on July 29, 1904, Smith wrote that a Mr. H. W. Turner had discoverd the Neopopanoceras beds at Union Wash in 1899--mentioning, too, that in 1900 and 1903 he'd accompanied Turner to collect additional ammonoid material from the cephalopodicly important Union Wash horizon. Smith concluded that the Neopopanoceras ammonoid fauna, while similar to forms recognized from the Mediterranean region, most closely resembled species already described from localities in the Arctic and India. Smith believed that the beds were lowermost Middle Triassic in geologic age, but more recent paleontological studies indicate that this is not the case, that the Neopopanoceras zone actually lies at the very top of the Early Triassic, approximately 248 million years old, yielding siginficant specimens of Spathian Stage Early Triassic times.
After investigating the moderately prolific Neopopanoceras zone in Union Wash, it's time for a trip farther on down section, into even older portions of the lower Triassic Union Wash Formation, to visit the world famous Meekoceras beds.
Although ammonoids are conspicuously prevalent in the Meekoceras-bearing horizon, through roughly 14 to 15 feet of grayish limestone (calcium carbonate) at the base of the middle member of the Lower Triassic Union Wash Formation (probably deposited in moderately deep waters), not all sections of the important cephalopod zone are abundantly fossiliferous. Most of the fossils are preserved in localized concentrations as fragmentary and complete calcium carbonate steinkerns of the original invertebrate animals. But be sure to collect only loose fossil specimens and chunks of fossiliferous limestone that have already weathered out of the ammonoid-bearing bed. Unless you've secured the necessary BLM (Bureau of Land Management) or US Forest Service collection permit, don't conduct any digging into bedrock within the federally designated Southern Inyo Wilderness Area.
The Meekoceras beds at Union Wash were discovered in 1896 by pioneering paleontologist Charles Doolittle Walcott during one of his epic expeditions to the Western states in search of fossiliferous Early Cambrian exposures. Which means, ultimately, that Walcott--one of the most observant and successful field paleontologists in all of human history (he who discovered the world-famous middle Cambrian soft-bodied Burgess Shale fauna of Canada, for example)--actually walked right by those younger Neopopanoceras beds in Union Wash, failing to note the ammonoid-bearing zone that H. W. Turner would eventually discover in 1899. Walcott subsequently donated his collection from Union Wash to James Perrin Smith, who determined that the ammonoids were of Early Triassic geologic age, or roughly 248 million years old. Based on the presence of Meekoceras gracilitatus in the fossil collections from Union Wash, Smith assigned the entire fauna to the formally recognized Meekoceras zone, a major cephalopod horizon known from several localities around the globe, such as the Arctic Circle, Siberia, Japan, China, Timor, New Zealand, India, Pakistan, Madagascar, the northern Caucasus Mountains and the former Yugoslavia. The Meekoceras beds have also been identified at a handful of correlative sites in the United States, including northeastern Nevada, southeastern Idaho and northern Utah. Of Early Triassic Smithian Stage stratigraphic age, it is in fact the oldest Mesozoic ammonoid bed yet discovered in North America, and is the third-oldest known from that geologic age in the world. Only the Otoceras and Genodiscus ammonoid zones precede it in the worldwide stratigraphic record of the Triassic Period, the oldest division of the Mesozoic Era.
Smith published his findings on the ammonoid fauna at Union Wash in 1932 in USGS Professional Paper 167, Lower Triassic Ammonoids of North America. He noted that the most distinctive variety recovered from the Union Wash limestone layers was Meekoceras gracilitatus, the species for which the zone was originally named in the first place. Other genera described from Smith's Meekoceras bed at Union Wash include Ophiceras (four species); Owenites (four species); Xenodiscus (four species); Anasibirites (three species); Sturia (two species); Lanceolites (two species); Clypeoceras (two species); Lecanites (two species); Inyoites; Proptychites; Aspenites; Flemingites; Pseudosageceras; Prophingites; Danubites; Juvenites; and six additional species of Meekoceras. Smith concluded that most of the ammonoid species at Union Wash showed close affinities to similar types recovered from localities in India and Timor; hence, he concluded they are Asiatic varieties, while the younger Neopopanoceras zone (Smith called it the Parapopanoceras zone) yields species that are more closely related to types discovered in the Arctic and Asia, with only a general similarity to the well-known Early Triassic faunas of the Mediterranean region.
Union Wash remains one of the great Early Triassic localities in North America. It's a place where at least three distinct fossiliferous horizons yield a rich association of 248 million year-old cephalopods. Even though the incredibly productive Meekoceras beds presently lie within a federally protected wilderness area, both amateurs and professional paleontologists may still hike to it and find plenty of ammonoids to take home--remembering of course to keep only loose, freely eroded specimens; don't dig into the strata within a wilderness zone without a BLM (Bureau of Land Management) or National Forest Service collecting permit.
While finding ammonoids at Union Wash, it is inspiring to gaze back westward to the Sierran skyline across the Owens Valley, watching the glacier-incised canyons take on crevasse-like shadowing as the sun dips below snowy peaks whose elevations average over 14,000 feet--a great mountain range born from Jurassic-age batholithic magmatic intrusions of liquid rock, some 100 million years younger than the Early Triassic ammonoids you hold in your hand, cephalopodic specimens that helped repopulate a world gone mostly dead after the end time Permian of 252 million years ago.
|The view is east to the Inyo Mountains at the mouth of Union Wash; the stratified reddish-brown and grayish rocks in foreground and along the slopes at middle left of the image represent limestones and shales of the ammonoid-bearing lower Triassic Union Wash Formation; grayish strata along skyline at middle and upper left are carbonate rocks that lie within the middle to upper Pennysylvanian Keeler Canyon Formation, which yields many species of fusulinids (an extinct single-celled animal that secreted a distinctive football to wheat-shaped shell), crinoid stems, bryozoans and brachiopods.|
|A view back westward across Owens Valley to the Sierra Nevada from Union Wash, where common to locally abundant ammonoids occur at two major fossil horizons in the lower Triassic Union Wash Formation, some 248 million years old. Slope at left foreground consists of limestones and shales of the lower Triassic Union Wash Formation.|
|An adventurer of the Triassic Period examines sedimentary material (mainly shale in this portion of the stratigraphic section) in the ammonoid-bearing Lower Triassic Union Wash Formation at Union Wash, Inyo County, California.|
|A Meekoceras gracilitatus (White) ammonoid from the lower Triassic Union Wash Formation, Union Wash, Inyo County, California. Specimen is 54mm in diameter. This is the ammonoid for which the famous Meekoceras Beds horizon was named. The locality presently lies within the Southern Inyo Wilderness area, so paleontologic remains observed there must not be removed from bedrock exposures without a special use permit issued by the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) or US Forest Service, a permit provided solely to individuals with a minimum B.S. degree from an accredited university whose research projects can be fully verified as authentic by the petitioned authorities. Without such a permit, visitors must restrict fossil collecting activitites to freely eroded ammonoids and loose chunks of fossiliferous limestone, already weathered out of the bedrock.|
|An ammonid, Xenodiscus sp., from the Neopopanoceras zone of the Lower Triassic Union Wash Formation, Union Wash, Inyo County, California. The specimen is 21mm in diameter. At last field check, the locality still lies outside the Southern Inyo Wilderness area; always check with the local BLM (Bureau of Land Management) and US Forest Service rangers to secure the most recent information regarding hobby fossil collecting at Union Wash.|